Struggling with Rust to figure out the right types for a function signature

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam's Blog

I am loving writing code in Rust. So many things about the language and its ecosystem feel so right*.

* For example: ownership of objects, expressive type system, compile to native, offline API docs, immutability, high quality libraries.

One of the things I like about it is that I don’t feel like I need to use an IDE, so I can happily code in Vim with no clever plugins.

One thing an IDE might give me would be an “extract function” refactoring. In most languages I am happy to do that manually, because I can let the compile errors guide me on what my function should look like.

However, in Rust I sometimes find it’s hard to find the right signature for a function I want to extract, and I am struggling to persuade the compiler to help me.

Here is an example from my new listsync project, in listsync-client-rust.rs:

use actix_web::{middleware, App, HttpServer};
use listsync_client_rust;
// ...
#[actix_rt::main]
async fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
//...
    HttpServer::new(|| {
        App::new()
            .wrap(listsync_client_rust::cookie_session::new_session())
            .wrap(middleware::Logger::default())
            .configure(listsync_client_rust::config)
    })
//...

I would like to extract the code highlighted above, the creation of an App, into a separate function, like this:

fn new_app() -> ??? {
    App::new()
        .wrap(listsync_client_rust::cookie_session::new_session())
        .wrap(middleware::Logger::default())
        .configure(listsync_client_rust::config)
}
//...
    HttpServer::new(|| {
        new_app()
    })

Simple, right? To find out what the return type of the function should be, I can just make a bad guess, and get the compiler to tell me what I did wrong. In this case, I will guess by changing the question marks above into i32, and run cargo test. I get quite a few errors, one of which is:

error[E0277]: the trait bound `i32: actix_service::IntoServiceFactory<_>` is not satisfied
  --> src/bin/listsync-client-rust.rs:27:5
   |
27 | /     HttpServer::new(|| {
28 | |         new_app()
29 | |     })
   | |______^ the trait `actix_service::IntoServiceFactory<_>` is not implemented for `i32`
   |
   = note: required by `actix_web::server::HttpServer`

So the first problem I see is that the error message I am seeing is about the later code, and there are no errors about my new function.

I obviously went a little too fast. Let’s change the HttpServer::new code back to how it was before, and only make a new function new_app. Now I get an error that should help me:

error[E0308]: mismatched types
  --> src/bin/listsync-client-rust.rs:12:5
   |
11 |   fn new_app() -> i32 {
   |                   --- expected `i32` because of return type
12 | /     App::new()
13 | |         .wrap(listsync_client_rust::cookie_session::new_session())
14 | |         .wrap(middleware::Logger::default())
15 | |         .configure(listsync_client_rust::config)
   | |________________________________________________^ expected i32, found struct `actix_web::app::App`
   |
   = note: expected type `i32`
              found type `actix_web::app::App<impl actix_service::ServiceFactory, actix_web::middleware::logger::StreamLog<actix_http::body::Body>>`

So the compiler has told us what type we are returning! Let’s copy that into the type signature of the function:

use actix_service::ServiceFactory;
use actix_http::body::Body;
// ...
fn new_app() -> App<impl ServiceFactory, middleware::logger::StreamLog<Body>> {
// ...

The first error I get from the compiler is a distraction:

error[E0432]: unresolved import `actix_service`
 --> src/bin/listsync-client-rust.rs:1:5
  |
1 | use actix_service::ServiceFactory;
  |     ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ use of undeclared type or module `actix_service`

I can fix it by adding actix-service = "1.0.5" to Cargo.toml. (I found the version by looking in Cargo.lock, since this dependency was already implicitly used – I just need to make it explicit if I am going to use it directly.)

Once I do that I get the next error:

error[E0603]: module `logger` is private
  --> src/bin/listsync-client-rust.rs:13:54
   |
13 | fn new_app() -> App<impl ServiceFactory, middleware::logger::StreamLog<Body>> {
   |                                                      ^^^^^^

This leaves me a bit stuck: I can’t use StreamLog because it’s in a private module.

More importantly, it makes the point that I don’t actually want to be as specific as I am being: I don’t care what the exact type parameters for App are – I just want to return an App of some kind and have the compiler fill in the blanks. Ideally, if I change the body of new_app later, for example to add another wrap call that changes the type of App we are returning, I’d like to leave the return type the same and have it just work.

With that in mind, I took at look at the type that HttpServer::new takes in. Here is HttpServer:

impl<F, I, S, B> HttpServer<F, I, S, B> where
    F: Fn() -> I + Send + Clone + 'static,
    I: IntoServiceFactory<S>,
    S: ServiceFactory<Config = AppConfig, Request = Request>,
    S::Error: Into<Error> + 'static,
    S::InitError: Debug,
    S::Response: Into<Response<B>> + 'static,
    <S::Service as Service>::Future: 'static,
    B: MessageBody + 'static, 

and HttpServer::new looks like:

pub fn new(factory: F) -> Self

So it takes in a function which actually makes the App, and the type of that function is F, which is a Fn which returns a I + Send + Clone + 'static. From the declaration of HttpServer we can see that the type of I depends on S and B, which have quite complex types. Let’s paste the whole thing in:

use actix_http::{Error, Request, Response};
use actix_service::IntoServiceFactory;
use actix_web::body::MessageBody;
use actix_web::dev::{AppConfig, Service};
use core::fmt::Debug;
// ...
fn new_app<I, S, B>() -> I
where
    I: IntoServiceFactory<S> + Send + Clone + 'static,
    S: ServiceFactory<Config = AppConfig, Request = Request>,
    S::Error: Into<Error> + 'static,
    S::InitError: Debug,
    S::Response: Into<Response<B>> + 'static,
    <S::Service as Service>::Future: 'static,
    B: MessageBody + 'static,
{
    App::new()
        .wrap(listsync_client_rust::cookie_session::new_session())
        .wrap(middleware::Logger::default())
        .configure(listsync_client_rust::config)
}

Note that I had to modify I to include the extra requirements on the return type of F from the definition of HttpServer. (I think I did the right thing, but I’m not sure. If I just remove the + Send + Clone + 'static it seems to behave similarly.)

Now I get this error from the compiler:

error[E0308]: mismatched types
  --> src/bin/listsync-client-rust.rs:27:5
   |
17 |   fn new_app<I, S, B>() -> I
   |                            - expected `I` because of return type
...
27 | /     App::new()
28 | |         .wrap(listsync_client_rust::cookie_session::new_session())
29 | |         .wrap(middleware::Logger::default())
30 | |         .configure(listsync_client_rust::config)
   | |________________________________________________^ expected type parameter, found struct `actix_web::app::App`
   |
   = note: expected type `I`
              found type `actix_web::app::App<impl actix_service::ServiceFactory, actix_web::middleware::logger::StreamLog<actix_http::body::Body>>`
   = help: type parameters must be constrained to match other types
   = note: for more information, visit https://doc.rust-lang.org/book/ch10-02-traits.html#traits-as-parameters

The compiler really tries to help here, suggesting I read a chapter of the Rust Book, but even after reading it I could not figure out how to do what I am trying to do.

Can anyone help me?

Wouldn’t it be amazing if there were some way the compiler could give me easier-to-understand help to figure this out?

London Python Meetup January 2019 – Async Python and GeoPandas

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam&#039;s Blog

It was a pleasure to go to the London Python Meetup organised by @python_london. There were plenty of friendly people and interesting conversations.

I gave a talk “Making 100 million requests with Python aiohttp” (slides) explaining the basics of writing async code in Python 3 and how I used that to make a very large number of HTTP requests.

Andy giving the presentation

(Photo by CB Bailey.)

Hopefully it was helpful – there were several good questions, so I am optimistic that people were engaged with it.

After that, there was an excellent talk by Gareth Lloyd called “GeoPandas, the geospatial extension for Pandas” in which he explained how to use the very well-developed geo-spatial data tools available in the Python ecosphere to transform, combine, plot and analyse data which includes location information. I was really impressed with how easy the libraries looked to use, and also with the cool Jupyter notebook Gareth used to explain the ideas using live demos.

London Python Meetups seem like a cool place to meet Pythonistas of all levels of experience in a nice, low-pressure environment!

Meetup link: aiohttp / GeoPandas

Godot: Dragging and dropping physics objects video

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam&#039;s Blog

Series: 2D Shapes, drag and drop

Continuing to explore the Godot 3 game engine. I want to make a game where you drag blocks around and balance them on each other, but I couldn’t find much documentation on how to drag-and-drop objects (except menu UI elements), and especially I found quite a few wrinkles when doing this with objects that are normally controlled by the physics engine.

This time we actually write some code in Godot’s programming language, GDScript.

Graft Animation Language on Raspberry Pi

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam&#039;s Blog

Because the Rapsberry Pi uses a slightly older Python version, there is a special version of Graft for it.

Here’s how to get it:

  • Open a terminal window by clicking the black icon with a “>” symbol on it at the top near the left.
  • First we need to install a couple of things Graft needs, so type this, then press Enter:
    sudo apt install python3-attr at-spi2-core
  • If you want to be able to make animated GIFs, install one more thing:
    sudo apt install imagemagick
  • To download Graft and switch to the Raspberry Pi version, type in these commands, pressing Enter after each line.
    git clone https://github.com/andybalaam/graft.git
    cd graft
    git checkout raspberry-pi
  • Now, you should be able to run Graft just like on another computer, for example, like this:
    ./graft 'd+=10 S()'
  • If you’re looking for a fun way to start, why not try the worksheet “Tell a story by making animations with code”?

    For more info, see Graft Raspberry Pi Setup.

My experience upgrading to Elm 0.19

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam&#039;s Blog

Elm is unstable, so upgrading to the next version can be painful. Here’s what I needed to do to upgrade from 0.18 to 0.19.

  • Replace elm-package.json and tests/elm-package.json with elm.json – e06f5a1728
  • Switch to the new elm-testb964b7c7a
  • Re-arrange Main, and how we call it from JavaScript – 0c118c49f
  • Stop using eeue56/elm-all-dict (since it’s not ported to 0.19 and porting it looked hard due to a lack of Debug.crash) – fe100f256
  • Replace toString with String.fromX or Debug.toString – 9e78163d0a3
  • Stop “shadowing” names by making new variables with the same name as another in the scope – 9688a621de
  • Adapt to the changed Html.style function – b991ab4f
  • Stop using Debug.crash – f98a70ad1
  • Adapt to the changes in the Regex module – 856762a4
  • Stop using tuples with more than 3 parts – 472c0bb7

The lack of Debug.crash is really, really painful, especially for a library like eeue56/elm-all-dict that has lots of invariants that are hard or impossible to enforce via the type system. On the other hand, if Elm can give a hard guarantee that there will be no runtime errors, this seems pretty cool. The problem is that some code may well have to return the wrong answer silently, instead of crashing, which could be much worse than crashing in some use-cases.

I was annoyed by the lack of more-than-3-part tuples, but even as I did the work to change my code, I saw it get better, so it’s hard to argue with.

The hardest part to work out was how to run the tests. Fortunately the tests themselves needed almost no changes. I just needed to do this:

rm -r tests/elm-stuff
rm tests/elm-package.json
sudo npm install -g elm-test@0.19.0-beta8
elm-test install
elm-test

My next job is to check out the –optimize compiler flag, and the advice on making the code smaller and faster.