Poor performance in Chrome (especially on mobile) – caused by SVG background images

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam's Blog

I have spent the last few hours investigating abysmal performance in my latest little game project Cross The Road. Firefox was fine, but Chromium and Chrome, especially on mobile, was rendering at about three frames per second.

When I stopped using SVGs as background-images for my elements, and used PNGs instead, it improved to about 20-30 FPS.

It seems fine to use SVGs as normal images, but for background-image, it really hurt performance.

You must rewind your incoming buffer when you fail to encode a character in a CharsetEncoder or you’ll get an IllegalArgumentException

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam's Blog

I am writing a CharsetEncoder in Java, which is my kind of fun.

I was getting a mysterious error when I identified that I could not encode certain characters:

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.IllegalArgumentException
	at java.nio.Buffer.position(Buffer.java:244)
	at java.nio.charset.CharsetEncoder.encode(CharsetEncoder.java:618)
	at java.nio.charset.CharsetEncoder.encode(CharsetEncoder.java:802)
	at java.nio.charset.Charset.encode(Charset.java:843)
	at java.nio.charset.Charset.encode(Charset.java:863)

After some investigation I realised the library code in Charset.encode was expecting me not to have consumed any characters of my incoming CharBuffer if I rejected the input by returning something like CoderResult.unmappableForLength.

Of course, in order to discover the input was unmappable, I did have to read it, but I made this problem go away by stepping back one char when I found an error like this:

@Override
public CoderResult encodeLoop(CharBuffer in, ByteBuffer out) {
    char ch = in.get();
    if(isUnmappable(ch)) {
        in.position(in.position() - 1);
        return CoderResult.unmappableForLength(2);
    }
    // ... rest of method ...

I hope this helps someone.

Godot: Dragging and dropping physics objects video

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam's Blog

Series: 2D Shapes, drag and drop

Continuing to explore the Godot 3 game engine. I want to make a game where you drag blocks around and balance them on each other, but I couldn’t find much documentation on how to drag-and-drop objects (except menu UI elements), and especially I found quite a few wrinkles when doing this with objects that are normally controlled by the physics engine.

This time we actually write some code in Godot’s programming language, GDScript.

Elm JSON decoder examples

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam's Blog

I find JSON decoding in Elm confusing, so here are some thoughts and examples.

Setup

$ elm --version
0.19.0
$ mkdir myproj; cd myproj
$ elm init
...
$ elm install elm/json
...

To run the “Demo” parts of the examples below, type them into the interactive Elm interpreter. To try them out, start it like this:

$ elm repl

and import the library you need:

import Json.Decode as D

Scroll to “Concepts” at the bottom for lots of waffling about what is really going on, but if you’re looking to copy and paste concrete examples, here we are:

Examples

JSON object to Record

type alias MyRecord =
    { i : Int
    , s : String
    }

recordDecoder : D.Decoder MyRecord
recordDecoder =
    D.map2
        MyRecord
        (D.field "i" D.int)
        (D.field "s" D.string)

Demo:

> type alias MyRec = {i: Int, s: String}
> myRecDec = D.map2 MyRec (D.field "i" D.int) (D.field "s" D.string)
<internals> : D.Decoder MyRec
> D.decodeString myRecDec "{\"i\": 3, \"s\": \"bar\"}"
Ok { i = 3, s = "bar" }
    : Result D.Error MyRec

JSON array of ints to List

intArrayDecoder : D.Decoder (List Int)
intArrayDecoder =
    D.list D.int

Demo:

> myArrDec = D.list D.int
<internals> : D.Decoder (List Int)
> D.decodeString myArrDec "[3, 4]"
Ok [3,4] : Result D.Error (List Int)

JSON array of strings to List

stringArrayDecoder : D.Decoder (List String)
stringArrayDecoder =
    D.list D.string

Demo:

> myArrDec2 = D.list D.string
<internals> : D.Decoder (List String)
> D.decodeString myArrDec2 "[\"a\", \"b\"]"
Ok ["a","b"] : Result D.Error (List String)

JSON object to Dict

intDictDecoder : D.Decoder (Dict String Int)
intDictDecoder =
    D.dict D.int

Demo:

> myDictDecoder = D.dict D.int
<internals> : D.Decoder (Dict.Dict String Int)
> D.decodeString myDictDecoder "{\"a\": \"b\"}"
Err (Field "a" (Failure ("Expecting an INT") <internals>))
    : Result D.Error (Dict.Dict String Int)
> D.decodeString myDictDecoder "{\"a\": 3}"
Ok (Dict.fromList [("a",3)])
    : Result D.Error (Dict.Dict String Int)

To build a Dict of String to String, replace D.int above with
D.string.

JSON array of objects to List of Records

type alias MyRecord =
    { i : Int
    , s : String
    }

recordDecoder : D.Decoder MyRecord
recordDecoder =
    D.map2
        MyRecord
        (D.field "i" D.int)
        (D.field "s" D.string)


listOfRecordsDecoder : D.Decoder (List MyRecord)
listOfRecordsDecoder =
    D.list recordDecoder

Demo:

> import Json.Decode as D
> type alias MyRec = {i: Int, s: String}
> myRecDec = D.map2 MyRec (D.field "i" D.int) (D.field "s" D.string)
<internals> : D.Decoder MyRec
> listOfMyRecDec = D.list myRecDec
<internals> : D.Decoder (List MyRec)
> D.decodeString listOfMyRecDec "[{\"i\": 4, \"s\": \"one\"}, {\"i\": 5, \"s\":\"two\"}]"
Ok [{ i = 4, s = "one" },{ i = 5, s = "two" }]
    : Result D.Error (List MyRec)

Concepts

What is a Decoder?

A Decoder is something that describes how to take in JSON and spit out something. The “something” part is written after Decoder, so e.g. Decoder Int describes how to take in JSON and spit out an Int.

The Json.Decode module contains a function that is a Decoder Int. It’s called int:

> D.int
<internals> : D.Decoder Int

In some not-all-all-true way, a Decoder is sort of like a function:

-- This is a lie, but just pretend with me for a sec
Decoder a : SomeJSON -> a
-- That was a lie

To actually run your a Decoder, provide it to a function like decodeString:

> D.decodeString D.int "45"
Ok 45 : Result D.Error Int

So the actually-true way of getting an actual function is to combine decodeString and a decoder like int:

> D.decodeString D.int
<function> : String -> Result D.Error Int

When you apply decodeString to int you get a function that takes in a String and returns either an Int or an error. The error could be because the string you passed was not valid JSON:

> D.decodeString D.int "foo bar"
Err (Failure ("This is not valid JSON! Unexpected token o in JSON at position 1") )
    : Result D.Error Int

or because the parsed JSON does not match what the Decoder you supplied expects:

> D.decodeString D.int "\"45\""
Err (Failure ("Expecting an INT") )
    : Result D.Error Int

(We supplied a String containing a JSON string, but the int Decoder expects to find a JSON int.)

Side note: ints and floats are treated as different, even though the JSON Spec treats them all as just “Numbers”:

> D.decodeString D.int "45.2"
Err (Failure ("Expecting an INT") )
    : Result D.Error Int

What is a Value?

Elm has a type that represents JSON that has been parsed (actually, parsed and stored in a JavaScript object) but not interpreted into a useful Elm type. You can make one using the functions inside Json.Encode:

> import Json.Encode as E
> foo = E.string "foo"
 : E.Value

You can even turn one of these into a String containing JSON using encode:

> E.encode 0 foo
"\"foo\"" : String

or interpret the Value as useful Elm types using decodeValue:

> D.decodeValue D.string foo
Ok "foo" : Result D.Error String

(When JSON values come from JavaScript, e.g. via flags, they actually come as Values, but you don’t usually need to worry about that.)

However, what you can’t do is pull Values apart in any way, other than the standard ways Elm gives you. So any custom Decoder that you write has to be built out of existing Decoders.

How do I write my own Decoder?

If you want to make a Decoder that does custom things, build it from the existing magic Decoders, give it a type that describes the type it outputs, and insert your code using one of the mapN functions.

For example, to decode only ints that are below 100:

> under100 i = if i < 100 then D.succeed i else (D.fail "Not under 100")
<function> : number -> D.Decoder number
> intUnder100 = D.int > D.andThen under100
<internals> : D.Decoder Int
> D.decodeString intUnder100 "50"
Ok 50 : Result D.Error Int
> D.decodeString intUnder100 "500"
Err (Failure ("Not under 100") <internals>)
    : Result D.Error Int

Here, we use the andThen function to transform the Int value coming from calling the int function into a Decoder Int that expresses success or failure in terms of decoding. When we do actual decoding using the decodeString funcion, this is transformed into the more familiar Result values like Ok or Err.

If you want to understand the above, pay close attention to the types of under100 and intUnder100.

If you want to write a Decoder that returns some complex type, you should build it using the mapN functions.

For example, to decode strings into arrays of words split by spaces:

> splitIntoWords = String.split " "
<function> : String -> List String
> words = D.map splitIntoWords D.string
<internals> : D.Decoder (List String)
> D.decodeString words "\"foo bar baz\""
Ok ["foo","bar","baz"]
    : Result D.Error (List String)

Above we used map to transform a Decoder String (the provided string function) into a Decoder (List String) by mapping it over a function (splitIntoWords) that transforms a String into a List String.

Again, to understand this, look carefully at the types of splitIntoWords
and words.

How do I build up complex Decoders?

Complex decoders are built by combining simple ones. Many functions that make decoders take another decoder as an argument. A good example is “JSON array of objects to List of Records” above – there we make a Decoder MyRecord and use it to decode a whole list of records by passing it as an argument to list, so that it returns a Decoder (List MyRecord) which can take in a JSON array of JSON objects, and return a List of MyRecords.

Why is this so confusing?

Because Decoders are not functions, but they feel like functions. In fact they are opaque descriptions of how to interpret JSON that the Elm runtime uses to make Elm objects for you out of Values, which are opaque objects that underneath represent a piece of parsed JSON.

Graft Animation Language on Raspberry Pi

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam&#039;s Blog

Because the Rapsberry Pi uses a slightly older Python version, there is a special version of Graft for it.

Here’s how to get it:

  • Open a terminal window by clicking the black icon with a “>” symbol on it at the top near the left.
  • First we need to install a couple of things Graft needs, so type this, then press Enter:
    sudo apt install python3-attr at-spi2-core
  • If you want to be able to make animated GIFs, install one more thing:
    sudo apt install imagemagick
  • To download Graft and switch to the Raspberry Pi version, type in these commands, pressing Enter after each line.
    git clone https://github.com/andybalaam/graft.git
    cd graft
    git checkout raspberry-pi
  • Now, you should be able to run Graft just like on another computer, for example, like this:
    ./graft 'd+=10 S()'
  • If you’re looking for a fun way to start, why not try the worksheet “Tell a story by making animations with code”?

    For more info, see Graft Raspberry Pi Setup.