The Product Owner Delta

Allan Kelly from Allan Kelly Associates

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As regular readers might know I’m working on a book called The Art of Product Ownership to be published by Apress later this year. One of the chapters is entitled “Why have a Product Owner” and a few days ago a bunch of ideas crystallised into this…

The aim of the Product Owner is to increase, even maximise, the business value delivered by the team as a whole. The Product Owner does not so much create value themselves as increase the value created by others.

Think of it like this: if the team randomly selected work to do and delivered it to customers then some value would be created. (For the moment I’ll ignore the scenario where that work detracts from the existing value.) The aim of the PO is to ensure the work done creates more value than a simple random selection. The greater the difference, or delta to use a mathematical term, between random selection and an informed selection the better.

The general hypothesis is that intelligent selection of work by a skilled Product Owner will result in both more value being delivered and an increasing delta between intelligent PO selected work and randomly selected work.

This difference the value added by a Product Owner. I like to call this difference the Product Owner Delta.

Now in real life work is seldom randomly so Product Owners are not competing against random selection. In some cases the alternative to a designated Product Owners is someone else: a senior developer, an architect, a manager or someone else. In such cases this person is taking on the Product Owner role. They may not have the title, the aptitude, the skills or official position but when work is selected by one person they are de facto the Product Owner.

In other cases the alternative to the PO might be selection by consensus on the team, or a sub-set of the team. Now it is entirely possible that such a group could outperform a single Product Owner in selecting work – especially is they have market and customer knowledge, some analysis skills, time to do the background research and so on. In some cases this works, for example think of a small start-up staffed by software developers creating software development tools.

However, in some cases selection by committee might be inferior to a random selection. Imagine a team which has never met a customer, argue about what to do, duck key decisions and never say No to any request. Its easy to image a dysfunctional selection committee.

There is more to increasing the Product Owner Delta than simply selecting the highest value items. Timely selection can help too. If decisions are not being made, or committees are spending a long time making decisions then having one person simply make those decisions in an efficient, timely, manner can increase the delta.

Time has another role. Because of cost-of-delay simply selecting the highest value items at any one point in time does not maximise the value delivered. Time Value Profiles (see Little Book of User Stories or my presentations on value “How much? When?”) expose this and need to be another tool in the Product Owners repertoire.

And of course, the Product Owner Delta is not the only reason to have a Product Owner in the team, but it is probably the main reason.


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The Agile virus

Allan Kelly from Allan Kelly Associates

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The thing we call Agile is a virus. It gets into organizations and disrupts the normal course of business. In the early days, say before 2010, the corporate anti-bodies could be counted on to root out and destroy the virus before too much damage was done.

But sometimes the anti-bodies didn’t work. As the old maxim says “that which doesn’t kill me makes me stronger.” Sometimes agile made the organization stronger. Software development teams produced more stuff, they delivered on schedule, employees were happier, they had fewer bugs. In smaller, less established companies, the virus infected the company central nervous system, the operating system, and subverted it. Agile became natural.

Perhaps thats not so odd after all. Fighting infection is one of the ways bodies grow stronger. And some virus have positive effects – Friendly Viruses Protect Us Against Bacteria (Science Magazine),
‘Good viruses’ defend gut when bacteria are wiped out (New Scientist), 10 Viruses That Actually Help Humankind (ListVerse), and virus play a roll in evolution by removing the weaker of the species.

The problem is, once the virus is inside the organization/organism it wants to grow and expand. It you don’t kill it then it will infect more and more of the body. Hence, software teams that contracted the agile virus and found it beneficial were allowed to survive but at the same time the virus spread downstream to the requirements process. Business Analysts and Product Managers had to become agile too.

Once you are infected you start to see the world through infected eyes. Over time the project model looked increasingly counter productive. Growth of the agile virus lead to the #NoProjects movement as the virus started to change management models.

Similar things are happening in the accounting and budgeting field. As the agile virus takes hold, and especially once the #NoProjects mutation kicks in, the annual budget process looks crazy. Agile creates a force for more change, agile demands Beyond Budgetting. Sure you can do agile in a traditional budget environment but the more you do the more contradictions you see and the more problems you encounter.

Then there is “human resources” – or to give it a more humane name personnel. Traditional staff recruitment, line management, individual bonuses and retention polices start to look wrong when you are infected by agile. Forces grow to change things, the more the organization resists the virus the more those infected by the virus grow discontent and the more unbalanced things become.

It carries on. The more successful agile is the greater the forces pressing for more change.

While companies don’t recognise these forces they grow. Hierarchical organizations and cultures (like banks) have this really bad. At the highest level they have come to recognise the advantages of the agile virus but to embrace it entirely is to destroy the essence of the organization.

Countless companies try to contain the agile virus but to do so they need to exert more and more energy. Really they need to kill it or embrace it and accept the mutation that is the virus.

Ultimately it all comes down to forces. The forces of status quo and traditional working (Theory X) on one side against the forces of twenty-first century digital enabled millennial workforce (Theory Y) on the other. Victory for the virus is inevitable but that does not mean every organization will be victorious or even survive. Those who can harness the virus fastest stand to gain the most.

The virus has been released, putting the genie back in the bottle is going to be hard – although the paradox of digital technology is that while the digital elite stand to gain the digital underclass (think Amazon warehouse workers) stand to lose.

All companies need to try to embrace the virus, to not do so would be to condemn oneself. But not all will succeed, in fact most will fail trying. Their failures will allow space for new comers to succeed, that is the beauty of capitalism. Unfortunately that space might be also be grabbed by the winners, the companies that have let the virus take over the organization.


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Agile is a Crunchy Nut Frog (and some dirty secrets)

Allan Kelly from Allan Kelly Associates

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Remember the Monty Python Crunchy Nut Frog sketch? – especially the final section..

Officer: Well why don’t you move into more conventional areas of confectionery, … I mean look at this one, ‘cockroach cluster’, ‘anthrax ripple’. What’s this one, ‘spring surprise’?

Shop keeper: Ah – now, that’s our speciality – covered with darkest creamy chocolate. When you pop it in your mouth steel bolts spring out and plunge straight through-both cheeks.

That like Agile to me. In AgileLand everything is sweetness and light. Agile has all the answers. Everything works. Agile is utopia.

I’ve taught enough Agile Introduction courses to know this is so – and pushed ti too. There is no scenario I can’t fix in the classroom with the application of the right Agile principles, tool or mindset. And if I can’t… well in that case, Agile is helping you see the problem more clearly and you have to find your own solution.

Honestly, part of the appeal of Agile is that: Agile is a damn good story. Agile paints the picture of a better world, and so it should. Particularly when delivering an Agile training course I see my role as two fold:

  1. In-part enough information so that teams can actually try Agile
  2. Energise people to want to try it this way

Except, there are some dirty little secrets in the Agile world which do’t fit with this picture.

First up is Micromanagement (#1).

As I said in Devs Hate Agile, the Agile toolkit can be used for good or evil. If someone wants to be a micro-manager par-excellence then Agile – and particularly Scrum – make a great toolkit for micro-management too.

The intention behind the Agile/Scrum approach is to give those who do the work the tools and approaches to take control of their own work. When they do so then great things happen – the workers control the means of production! However those same tools can be used by very effectively by those who would control the workers.

What micromanager would not want every team member standing up to justify themselves at 9am each morning?
Surely a micromanager would want working software at every opportunity? – and if you fail to deliver working software then…

In part this is because Agile is a great tool for apportioning blame (#2). When builds fail you know who did the last check-in. when tests fail you know who broke it, when cards don’t move on a board, sorry I mean Jira, then the powerful can hone in on those not pulling their weight.

Kanban is even better than Scrum here. I remember one Project Manager who used the Kanban board (26 columns!) we constructed to demonstrate why everybody apart from him was slowing work down. Try as I might I couldn’t get him to see each of problem to be worked on. To be fair to him, he was the product of a system where almost every step was undertaken by a sub-contractor, he had no power to change or reward sub-contractors, only to whip them.

Both these points illustrate the second dirty little secret: you don’t need to do everything (#3).

Simply holding stand-up meetings and end-of-iteration activities is a massive improvement for some teams.

Developers who adopt Test Driven Development will produce fewer bugs, waste less time in the debugger, and the testers who come after them will spend less time reporting bugs. Thus fewer bugs will need fixing and schedules will improve.

A Kanban board with WIP limits will improve workflow even if you do nothing else.

Yes, if you do every part of Scrum things will get a lot better.

And if you do every part of XP the total benefit will be better than the sum of the parts.

Part of the genius of Agile is that it can be implemented piecemeal. But that also means organizations and teams can stop. I’ve seen this a number of time: I introduce a bit of Agile, the immediate pain is relieved and the company looses the will to go further and improve more.

After all, who am I but an external consultant to tell them they could do better?

Once the pain if gone then the need to change goes too.

Now some dirty little secrets are being exposed. Most readers will know I have been active in exposing the dirty secret of Agile Project Management: the idea that Agile and the project model (aka project management) can work together.

Sure they can work together but… why? what is the point? Why go to the trouble of integrating Agile and Project Management?

Once you start working Agile the project model looks absurd. Hence #NoProjects – and why so many people have arrived at the same conclusion about projects independently.

In fact, it goes further than that. Companies that introduce full blown Scrum – including self-organizing teams – risk destroying themselves. In traditional, top-down, hierarchical companies Agile and self-organizing teams must be contained otherwise it will destroy the whole hierarchy. That is why banks struggle with Agile, the chocolate on the outside is really nice but sooner or later what they are eating runs up against what they are.

Finally, you might notice that in this post – and indeed in many of my other post – I don’t agree with other Agile advocates. Go and read Jeff Sutherland (I don’t agree over self-organization), Mike Cohn (I don’t agree over stories and points), Keith Richards (not the rolling stone, the APM man, I don’t agree over projects), Jim Coplien (he doesn’t agree over TDD), Joanna Rothman (we don’t agree on stories), Dan North (we don’t agree on teams) and just about anyone else and you’ll find I don’t agree 100% with anyone.

True, I make a point of being a contrarian – go read my old Heresy: My warped, crazy, wrong version of Agile.

But the thing is: none of these people agree with each other.

Everyone in the Agile communities interprets it slightly differently.

The final dirty secret of Agile is: the experts don’t agree – there is no one true way (#5).

I feel sorry for new comers to Agile who expect to read the one-true-way but I’m also saw none of us “gurus” would want to any other way because we want variety and experimentation. And perhaps that is why one-size-fits all Agile scaling is always doomed.

Frog image credit: Argentine Horned Frog by Grosscha on WikiMediaCommons under CCL ASA 4.0 license


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Story Generators

Allan Kelly from Allan Kelly Associates

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Recently I’ve been looking again at Jobs to be Done and OKRs (Objectives and Key Results). I increasingly see them as story generators and a potential solution to the tyranny of the backlog I described last time.

When I first looked at Jobs to be Done (and OKRs actually) I wondered if they constituted a fourth, top, level on top of Epics, Stories and Tasks. I’ve long argued against having more than three levels of things to do (or requirements as we used to call them.) There are big meaningful things to do (stories), really big things which we don’t as yet understand but look really valuable (epics) and the immediate small things to do right now (tasks).

Actually, I’d rather think most things can be dealt with by two levels and one level is the even better. So adding a fourth “even bigger” thing on top of Epics just felt wrong. Technologists (like myself) have a tendency to map everything into hierarchies; inverted trees with fractal like branches. But not everything is, or should be, a hierarchy, mapping the world into a tree like structure can add complications.

Unlike stories (and epics and tasks) Jobs to be Done don’t really lend themselves to the transactional “Done”. While you could put a Job all the way to Done on your Kanban board and track it from “To do” to “Done” in reality the customer job still exists. Sure you’ve improved it but you can improve it again – another example of Stable Intermediate Forms. This seems to be the great potential of Jobs to be Done, they keep on giving: as much as you improve your product to help with the job you can still improve it some more.

So each time you analyse the Job to be Done you should be able to find more stories to deliver to improve it. Hence the Job to be Done is not a “story” to do, it is a Story Generator. Every time you look at the job to be done you find more stories, every time you examine the result of the latest improvement you find more stories. The job will never be done. Some might see that as a bad thing but that also means the job presents a stable focus for ongoing work.

The same might be true of OKRs but in a slightly different way. Because the objective is reviewed periodically – every quarter or so – it lacks the continuity of Jobs to be Done but perhaps allows the team to switch targets, maybe it is stable enough.

The key results may well be stories in their own right, or they may be things which lead to stories. Either way one can expect some key results to be achieved and marked as done regularly. As they fall they are either replaced by new key results building towards the objective (which themselves lead to stories) or new key results are added for new objectives.

I’m sure there are other story generators out there but the key thing for me is not the mechanism but the existence of the generator. Once you have a story generator you do not need a big backlog of things to do. The generator will replenish the backlog whenever you need more stories – either because you have done them or the value has fallen.

Using a generator removes the need to have a big backlog which removes the tyranny of the backlog. The team are now free(r) to concentrate on delivering value towards their objective.

Finally, I wonder if anyone has used both OKRs and Jobs to be Done together? Right now they feel like alternative generators to me, having both seems like a bit like overkill. Although I accept that maybe OKRs are more corporate and Jobs to be Done are more product focused. Anyone got any experience using them together?


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The power of small declines

Allan Kelly from Allan Kelly Associates

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Last year I wrote about the power of 1% improvement, and how powerful this can be when that improvement occurs frequently. For example, if a team improves 1% a week then over the course of 50 weeks (a year) they would improve by over 62%.

A few days ago I had a revelation: the opposite is also true.

If a team enters a downward spiral then a 1% decline in productivity each week has similar effects but in the opposite direction. In fact, as I think about this I see more and more occasions where a team can loose small amounts of performance which actually saps their productive capacity. Like the frog in hot water they don’t realise they are cooked until it is too late.

The graph above shows what happens to value-add over a year when a team is 1% less productive each week. The blue bars show how value-add falls each week. The red line shows how each week the team declines slightly compared to the week before.

That the red line get higher seems odd but it makes sense: each week the team is 1% less productive than the week before. So at the end of the second week the team is 1% less productive than they were in the first week. At the end of week 50 they are 1% less productive than week 49 but only 0.62% more less productive than week 1 because the 1% decline was from a lower total. Getting worse slows down because the team are worse!

At some point the value-add ceases to justify the cost of the team. But as these changes are very gradual that is going to be hard to see.

Why might this happen? – lots of reasons

First off there are the corporate drains on productivity. Consider corporate security processes: think about passwords alone, the need to change passwords regularly, have longer and longer passwords, have different passwords on different systems, and so on. Sure cyber security is important but it can also be a drain on productivity.

Then there are the other hassles of working almost anywhere: finding meeting rooms, booking meeting rooms, setting up webex conference calls, “cake in the kitchen”, restrictions on internet use – whether it is limited access, site blacklists, or authorised “white list” sites only.

It is easy to see how a large corporate can gradually drain a team. But there are other reasons.

There are personal drains on productivity too. Consider internet use during work time. The likes of Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter which aim to keep you on their sites as long as possible. Using LinkedIn is almost a necessity in modern work – got a meeting coming up? someone applied for a job? looking for a lead? – but once your in, Microsoft wants to keep you there.

Then think about your code base: is the code getting better or worse?

  • Easier to work with or harder to work with?
  • Do you write an automated test for every change? Or save time today at the cost of time tomorrow, and the next day, and the day after, and …
  • Do you take time to refactor every time you make a change? or are you constantly kludging it and making the next change slightly harder?

Notice here I’m not talking about those big time consuming changes that happen occasionally: new employees, reorganisations, mergers – things that happen occasionally, take a chunk of time but finish.

So, is your work environment getting a little bit better every week? or a little bit harder?

If we think at the “very little” level it is unlikely that things are the same as last week. Staying the same will be hard. Things are probably a little bit better or a little bit harder. Extend that over a year and – as the theory of 1% change shows – things are a lot worse, or maybe a lot better.

What is important is the trend, and the trend is going to be set by the culture. Do you have a culture of small improvements? Or an acceptance of small degradation?

Finally, because there are so many minor factors that can sap your productivity capacity then it is quite likely that if you aren’t getting more productive then you are getting less. In other words, you need to be working to improve just to stand still.

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NoNo workshop in London

Allan Kelly from Allan Kelly Associates

Smaller cartons of software are cheaper and less risky
Smaller cartons of software are cheaper and less risky

 

Vasco Duarte and myself are running our #NoProjects/#NoEstimates workshop again in London – February. This is a one day class with myself and Vasco, it is very interactive, lots of exercises and lots of changes to ask us your questions.

 

“A one day introduction to #NoEstimates and #NoProjects. Learn to apply the digital-first tools that help you deliver more value in less time. From breaking down 9 month projects to 30 minutes, to learning to reduce investment risks. In this workshop you will learn how to transform your product development.”

More details and booking at the Learning Connexions website.

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Money talks: A tale of two change programs

Allan Kelly from Allan Kelly Associates

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Like many in the agile community – or what sometimes gets called the agile industrial complex – I am all for piecemeal adoption, small scale before large scale, get good at doing stuff then expand it out… – what else would you expect from Mr Diseconomies of Scale?

The “start small” and grow might even be regarded as the canonical approach to agile implementation. But from time to time I run across something that makes me wonder…

Four or five years back I got involved with an agile transformation programme at a large financial institution, not a bank, more of a mass market asset manager. I was attached to a small team trying to make the whole company agile.

The coaches viewed themselves as a gorilla movement, changing the organization from within. They had some success, there was a bunch of stuff the agile teams and the coaches were doing wrong but that is another story. This was a licensed insurrection.

As is often the case, this team found it lacked the ability to ask the big questions and get people outside the team (often the higher ups) to engage or change themselves. The organization wanted agile down in the engine room – at the code face – but they didn’t want to rethink how they set requirements and approached projects. The whole organization was chronically project driven, obsessed with long term planning and offshore development. Economies of scale thinking ran riot.

Because the agile change was at the team level the product owners lacked authority to make real decisions – like not delivering functionality. Yes the organization wanted to “be agile” but the management cadre didn’t see any need to change their own behaviour.

One day I met two men who ran the company’s “Software Process Group.” They were guardians of the formal process and “working practices”. My immediate reaction was that they wanted to kill agile and stick with ISO-9000, PRINCE2, CMMI and certified approaches. They scared me. But actually they were very clued up. They got agile. They saw it was better than the current process.

These two had no role in the agile transformation, their role was to ensure the company kept its CMMI level two certification. This was really important to the company because this allowed the company to do business. They told me a story…

During the previous 20 years the company had grown large, very large, by buying up competitors and companies in related markets. These companies had been thrown together and costs stripped out. One day the financial regulator came to the company and said:

“We have been examining your IT functions. They are not fit for purpose. If you don’t fix it within 12 months we are going to withdraw your license to do business.”

Shit hitting the fan doesn’t come much bigger than this.

The company went to IBM and said “Help! – Fix it – we’ll will pay anything.”

IBM flooded the company with people. IBM imposed a process – a traditional CMMI compliant process. IBM changed the company, not just the programmers but everything. The company did as IBM told them.

And don’t imagine it was cheap. I bet that the change and IBM fees were on the agenda at every board meeting during that period. The men I had met were the remnants of that programme, they worked for the company not IBM, their job was to ensure the company maintained accreditation and the financial regulator wouldn’t have cause to come back.

Now contrast this with the piecemeal, small scale, bottom-up change that us agile folk are so fond of. Time and time again we get stuck: “the business won’t change”, “we can’t get access to the senior people”, “existing processes and expectations are unassailable”, “projects are killing us” and so on.

I’m sure IBM faced many of those same problems but they had one big advantage: They were expensive.

OK, they had a second: the loss of license would destroy the client company. But when threatened people often respond by sticking with that they know so maybe it was a double edged sword.

Because IBM were expensive they had access to anyone they wanted access too. Because they were expensive they had authority. And if someone didn’t want to make the changes IBM suggested then IBM could simply ask the next person up.

Once again money is information: by spending lots of money with IBM the company was signalling it really wanted these changes to happen.

Agile changers may not like big change, they may point to the inherent risks, they may point that use of authority conflicts with self-organization, they may understand that diseconomies of scale rule and they may point to a bunch of other risks.

But they should also note one clear advantage: a big expensive change programme brings authority all of its own.

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Agile won the war but lost the peace

Allan Kelly from Allan Kelly Associates

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“I’ve spoken of the shining city all my political life, … in my mind it was a tall, proud city built on rocks stronger than oceans, wind-swept, God-blessed, and teeming with people of all kinds living in harmony and peace; a city with free ports that hummed with commerce and creativity. And if there had to be city walls, the walls had doors and the doors were open to anyone with the will and the heart to get here. That’s how I saw it, and see it still” President Ronald Reagan, Farewell to the Nation, January 11, 1989

Back in 2001 when the word agile appeared it was a manifesto – a set of ideas, the term “agile” also served to group a bunch of tools and techniques which could make software development “better.” More importantly to my mind, it painted a picture of a shining city on a hill we all wanted to live in.

Agile was a place you wanted to go, it was a journey you wanted to make, it offered hope. More important as the tools – sprints, stand-ups, etc. – and approaches – just in time, last responsible moment, test first – were the stories agile people – including myself – told. These were stories of a better world, of that shining city on the hill.

And not unimportantly, in a world of search engines “agile” gave you something to search for. Before agile you could search “make my software development team better” or “software development process improvement” but what you got was a very mixed offering. AltaVista (and the young Google) would suggest links for CMMI, or ISO-9000, or vendor tools to “fix it”, or proper design, or… there was no coherent message. Most of these ideas resolved around senior people making big decisions and then imposing them.

Then along came agile: it offered to involve everyone, everyone made decisions, everyone was happy and we could all go to that shining city on a hill – more than that, we all had an important part to play in building that city.

Today everyone is agile. Nobody is promoting traditional (“waterfall”) working, CMMI, PMI and everyone else has incorporated agile (to some degree). Not being agile is about as popular as leprosy.

But very few of us have reached the shining city on the hill.

Along the way agile has been watered down, in becoming compatible with everything else it is less different, it is less attractive, fewer workers are motivated to take the journey. And as “the powers that be” have found ways to bring control-and-command back to teams (maybe in the name of scaling) fewer people are invited to help build the city.

Ironically, as we (the agile community) has made agile management friendly we have made it less worker friendly. Today senior managers “get agile” and want their organisations to be agile. But those at the code face seem to have less and less motivation. And those in the middle… sometimes they seem to want to change just enough to declare success but no so much that things really change.

For some people agile has become completely discredited – I wrote Why do Dev’s hate agile? last year and I’m presenting it in London next week. Agile isn’t a shining city on a hill, agile is trench warfare.

And Googling “agile” presents a long long list of links with less and less coherence.

Agile won the war. Agile is respectable and everyone is agile now. Big business rush to be agile, Governments want to be agile, blue-chip consultancies will sell you agile.

But agile lost the peace.

While many say they are agile few software developers live in a shiny city. The place they live in might be better than the place they came from but it doesn’t live up to the dream many of us shared 15 years ago. Agile has become an excuse for failure and a thing to be imposed.

The thing that passes for “agile” today is too often a watered down version of the original dream. Worse still, we don’t have a word to describe that shining city we all want to get to. Russians have an expression for this:

“We wanted the best, it turned out like always.” Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin, Prime Minister Russia, 1998-1999

Me? – I still dream of that shining city on the hill, I still believe agile is the right way to get their, I still wave the flag for agile but more and more I feel the need to explain myself and tell people that the agile I dream of is not the agile they may experience.

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More Continuous #NoProjects questions

Allan Kelly from Allan Kelly Associates

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Three short questions and answers to finish off my series of left over questions about #NoProjects, #NoEstimates and the Continuous model.

Q4: How do we prioritize and organize requests on a product that are from opposite business owners? – for example legal (who wants to reduce the risk and annoy more customers) and sales (who want to increase the features and simplify life) can be arbitrated in a backlog?

You can think of this as “which is worth more apples or milk?” It is difficult to compare two things which are actually different. Yes they are both work requests – or fruit – and each can make a case but at the end of the day you can’t make everything number 1 priority.

In real life we solve this problem with money.

Walk into your local supermarket. Apples, oranges and milk are both price in the same currency, sterling for me, Francs for the person who asked this question, maybe Euro’s or Dollars for you. So if we can assign value points to each request we are half way to solving the problem.

Now sales will argue that without their request there is no real money so whatever they ask for is worth more. And legal will argue that nobody wants to go to jail so their request must be worth more. You can set your analyst to work to calculate a value but a) this will take time and b) even when they have an answer people will dispute it.

Therefore, I would estimate a value – planning poker style. With an estimates value there is no pretence of “right” or “correct”. Each party gives a position and a discussion follows. With luck the different sides converge, if they don’t then I average. Once all requests are valued you have a first cut at prioritisation.

Q5: How to evaluate the number of people you need to maintain software?

I don’t. This is a strategic decision.

Sure someone somewhere needs to decide how much capacity – often expressed as people – will be allocated to a particular activity but rather than base this on need I see this as another priority decision. If a piece of software is important to an organization then it deserves more maintenance, and if it is not important it deserves less.

You could look at the size of the backlog, or the rate of new requests and contrast this with the rate at which work gets done. This would allow you to come up with an estimate of how many people are needed to support a product. But where is the consideration of value?

Instead you say something like: “This product is a key part of our business but the days of big changes are gone. Therefore one person will be assigned to look after the software.”

If in three months more people in the business are demanding more changes to the software and you can see opportunities to extract more value – however you define value – then that decision might be revised. Maybe a second person is assigned.

Or maybe you decide that maintaining this product isn’t delivering more value so why bother? Reduce work to only that needed to keep it going.

Q6: How do you evaluate the fact that your application becomes twice as fast (or slower) when you add a new feature in a short period of time?

Answering this question requires that the team has a clearly defined idea of what value is. Does the organization value execution speed? Does the organization value up-time? Does the organization value capacity?

Hopefully some of this will have come out of the value estimation exercise in Q4, if not the analysis is just going to take a bit longer. The thing to remember is: what does the change do for the business/customers/clients? Being faster is no use in itself, but doing X faster can be valuable.

The real problem here is time. Some changes lead to improvements which can be instantly measured. But there are plenty of changes where the improvements take time to show benefit. Here you might need to rely on qualitative feedback in the short run (“Sam says it is easier to use because it is faster”). Still I would keep trying to evaluate what happens and see if you can make some quantitive assessment later.

Notice that Q4 and Q6 are closely related. If you have a clear understanding of why you are doing something (Q4) then it becomes easier to tell if you have delivered the expected value (Q6). And in trying to understand what value you have delivered then you refine your thinking about the value you might deliver with future work.

Another feedback cycle.


These questions concludes the series of question carried over from the #NoEstimates/#NoProjects workshop in Zurich – see also How should we organize our teams?Dealing with unplanned but urgent workHow do we organise with a parallel team? – if you would like me to answer your question in this blog then please just e-mail me.


The #NoProjects books Project Myopia and Continuous Digital discuss these and similar issues in depth and are both available to buy in electronic or physical form from Amazon.

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The post More Continuous #NoProjects questions appeared first on Allan Kelly Associates.

Dealing with unplanned but urgent work

Allan Kelly from Allan Kelly Associates

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3) Maintenance and Evolution
To keep a product alive, we choose backlog stories that will bring value, and do them one after the other.
But… as support of the application may take a huge part the work. And when the problem is critical, there is nothing you can do but stop what you do and fix it. This can blow any estimation.
How do you deal with firefighting in a #NoProjects world?
And techniques to avoid it.
How does #NoProject and DevOps work together?

Let me take the last part of this question first. Operations has never been plagued by the project model the way development has. When does a SysAdmin ever say “The project is finished so I’m not going to restart the server” ?

DevOps (aka Continuous Delivery) and Continuous Digital are a natural fit. The team is responsible and accountable: writing the code, deploying it and supporting it there after: “You built it, you operate it” as DevOps people like to say.

Of course the team needs to contain all the skills needed to service this approach. That might mean having an individual specialist on the team or it might mean that team members have multiple skills. A Continuous team is not just a DevOps team, it is also a Business-Technology team – or #BizTech to coin a hashtag. (This week I heard such a team called a BizDevOps team. That is one portmanteau too far for me.)

Which brings us quite nicely to the first part of this question: how do you manage – and perhaps even plan for: unplanned work?

What I would like to happen when unplanned work appears is that it is written on a card and placed in the backlog. It then takes its place with all the other possible work. But… as the questioner states: this work can’t wait, it is urgent.

Unplanned but urgent simply needs to be done. Quite possibly other work, less valuable work or work which is not time critical may even be interrupted.

At this point I was about to refer readers to an old blog post about Yellow Cards. But it turns out that I never wrote that post. Despite talking about Yellow cards for years I’ve never blogged about them. I wrote about them in Xanpan but for some reason or another I never wrote the blog… so here you go…

When a team is mid-sprint and unplanned work appears the team should:

  • First ask “Can this work wait?” – If so then write it on a regular card and put it in the backlog
  • If not then ask, is this more valuable than work we are doing now? – If not then someone needs to find the source of the request and explain why is isn’t going to get done.
  • Assuming it is urgent then it gets written on a Yellow card.
  • If it is really really urgent then someone drops what they are doing and works on the yellow card immediately.
  • If it can wait a little while then the next person who finishes their current work picks up the card and does it.
  • Once the yellow card is done mark it as done as with any other card and work continues as it was before.

Accepting unplanned work into a sprint impacts the other work the team is doing. I’m not a big fan of the commitment protocol so to me it is no big deal if this work displaces something else. But if your team are expected to hold fast to hard commitments while dealing with unplanned work then you have a problem, call me, we need to talk more.

At the end of the iteration we can look at the cards and reason about them. Now we can see the work we can manage it and decide what to do about it.

I count up the yellow cards – and all the planned work cards. That allows me to calculate a ratio of planned versus unplanned work. (Sometimes teams put a retrospective points estimate on a yellow but doing a card count is often sufficient.)

This can be tracked over time – graph it, make it visible again. Now we can look at the work and the pattern of work, reason about it, maybe do some root-cause analysis. Perhaps:

  • Perhaps much of the urgent work isn’t really so urgent, perhaps the team should push back more. Maybe the team, or one of the team leaders, needs to the authority to say No.
  • Perhaps most of the unplanned work comes from a particular person. Maybe this person doesn’t realise the impact of their unplanned requests, or maybe they need to be included in the planning process, or … a million other reasons.
  • Perhaps the unplanned work is coming from the same sub-system, maybe some remedial work on that sub-system could reduce the amount of unexpected work.
  • Perhaps the unplanned work is just the nature of the business and being responsive is valuable.

Looked at this way we can think about reducing the amount of unplanned work. But also, we can plan for unplanned work.

It is likely that over time a pattern will emerge. One team I know found that 20% to 25% of their work in any sprint was unplanned. They simply planned for 20% less work. They now had the capacity to cope with unplanned work. At the least they could expectation manage stakeholders.

One team found that each sprint they were doing about 20% IT support tasks (new PCs, Word problems, etc.) so they hired a support technician.

Another team who agonised about unplanned work found that actually they only had about one unplanned card a week. Their problem was not excessive unplanned work but the fact that unplanned work tended to have a very high profile in the company.

Teams which find they have very high levels of unplanned work on a regular basis (e.g. over 50% of work for several months) may well decide to adopt a full Kanban system. Indeed, Kanban folk probably recognise my description as a very simple example of quality-of-service and policies.

I say more about Yellow Cards for unplanned but urgent in Xanpan so you might like to continue reading there.


This is the third question carried over from the #NoEstimates/#NoProjects August workshop in Zurich.


If you have any questions about Continuous Digital, Project Myopia and #NoProjects please mail them over and I’ll do my best to answer them in this blog.

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