What instructions can computers do without (an earlier post covered instructions they should support)?
The R in RISC was supposed to stand for Reduced, but in practice almost all the instructions you would expect were supported. What was missing were the really complicated instructions that machines of the time (last 1980s), like the VAX, supported (analysis of instruction set usage showed that these complicated instructions were rarely used; from the compiler perspective the combination sequence of operations supported by these instructions rarely occurred in code).
One instruction that was often missing from the early RISC processors was integer multiply. Compilers were expected to generate a series of instructions that had the same effect. Some of the omitted ‘basic’ instructions got added to later versions of the processors that survived commercially (e.g., SPARC).
The status register is still a common omission from RISC designs (at least for the integer operations). Where is the data showing that in the grand scheme of things (i.e., processor performance running real programs), status registers slow things down? I know that hardware designers don’t like them because they introduce bottlenecks. I don’t recall ever having seen an analysis of instruction set usage targeted at the impact of status registers on generated code. Pointers welcome.
These days, nobody seems to analyze instruction set usage like they did in times past. Perhaps Intel’s marketing and the demise of almost every cpu vendor has dampened enthusiasm for researching new cpu designs. These days most new cpu designs seem to be fashion driven, rather than data driven.
Do computers need registers? An issue that once attracted lots of research was the optimal number of registers for a processor. The minimum number of registers (or temporary storage locations) needed to evaluate an expression was known by 1970. There were various studies of the impact, on code generation, of increasing/decreasing the number of registers available to the compiler. But these studies were done using 1990s era compilers and modern compilers do many more optimizations; whole program optimization ought to be able to make use of many more registers than are probably available on today’s processors (at least I think so, until somebody does a study that shows otherwise). There is a register-less processor that is supposed to be taking the world by storm, sometime soon.