Source code chapter added to “Evidence-based software engineering using R”

Derek Jones from The Shape of Code

The Source Code chapter of my evidence-based software engineering book has been added to the draft pdf (download here).

This chapter has suffered from coming last and there is still lots of work to be done. Almost all the source code related data has been plundered to fill up earlier chapters. Some data did not make the cut-off for release of the draft; a global review will probably result in some data migrating back to this chapter.

When talking to developers about the book I am constantly being asked ‘what is empirical software engineering?’ My explanation uses the phrase ‘evidence-based’, which everybody seems to immediately understand. It is counterproductive having a title that has to be explained, so I have changed the title to “Evidence-based Software Engineering using R”.

What is the purpose of a chapter discussing source code in a book on evidence-based software engineering? Source code is obviously an essential component of the topics discussed in the other chapters, but what is so particular to source code that it could not be said elsewhere? Having spent most of my professional life studying source code, first as a compiler writer and then involved with static analysis, am I just being driven by an attachment to the subject?

My view of source code is very different from most other developers: when developers talk about code, they spend most of the time talking about how they do things, when I talk about code I spend most of the time talking about how other developers do things (I’m a mongrel writer of code). Developers’ blinkered view of code prevents them seeing bigger pictures. I take a Gricean view of code and refrain from using meaningless marketing terms such as maintainability, readability and testability.

I have lots of source code data of interest to compiler writers (who are not the target audience) and I have lots of data related to static analysis (tool developers are not the audience). The target audience is professional software developers and hopefully what has been written is of interest to that readership.

I have been promised all sorts of data. Hopefully some of it will arrive. If somebody tells you they promised to send me data, please encourage them to take some time to sort out the data and send it.

As always, if you know of any interesting software engineering data, please tell me.

Finalizing the statistical analysis material in the second half of the book (released almost two years ago) next.

First use of: software, software engineering and source code

Derek Jones from The Shape of Code

While reading some software related books/reports/articles written during the 1950s, I suddenly realized that the word ‘software’ was not being used. This set me off looking for the earliest use of various computer terms.

My search process consisted of using pfgrep on my collection of pdfs of documents from the 1950s and 60s, and looking in the index of the few old computer books I still have.

Software: The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) cites an article by John Tukey published in the American Mathematical Monthly during 1958 as the first published use of software: “The ‘software’ comprising … interpretive routines, compilers, and other aspects of automotive programming are at least as important to the modern electronic calculator as its ‘hardware’.”

I have a copy of the second edition of “An Introduction to Automatic Computers” by Ned Chapin, published in 1963, which does a great job of defining the various kinds of software. Earlier editions were published in 1955 and 1957. Did these earlier edition also contain various definitions of software? I cannot find any reasonably prices copies on the second-hand book market. Do any readers have a copy?

Software engineering: The OED cites a 1966 “letter to the ACM membership” by Anthony A. Oettinger, then ACM President: “We must recognize ourselves … as members of an engineering profession, be it hardware engineering or software engineering.”

The June 1965 issue of COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION, in its Roster of organizations in the computer field, has the list of services offered by Abacus Information Management Co.: “systems software engineering”, and by Halbrecht Associates, Inc.: “software engineering”. This pushes the first use of software engineering back by a year.

Source code: The OED cites a 1965 issue of Communications ACM: “The PUFFT source language listing provides a cross reference between the source code and the object code.”

The December 1959 Proceedings of the EASTERN JOINT COMPUTER CONFERENCE contains the article: “SIMCOM – The Simulator Compiler” by Thomas G. Sanborn. On page 140 we have: “The compiler uses this convention to aid in distinguishing between SIMCOM statements and SCAT instructions which may be included in the source code.”

Running pdfgrep over the archive of documents on bitsavers would probably throw up all manners of early users of software related terms.