Finding patterns in construction project drawing creation dates

Derek Jones from The Shape of Code

I took part in Projecting Success‘s 13th hackathon last Thursday and Friday, at CodeNode (host to many weekend hackathons and meetups); around 200 people turned up for the first day. Team Designing-Success included Imogen, Ryan, Dillan, Mo, Zeshan (all building construction domain experts) and yours truly (a data analysis monkey who knows nothing about construction).

One of the challenges came with lots of real multi-million pound building construction project data (two csv files containing 60K+ rows and one containing 15K+ rows), provided by SISK. The data contained information on project construction drawings and RFIs (request for information) from 97 projects.

The construction industry is years ahead of the software industry in terms of collecting data, in that lots of companies actually collect data (for some, accumulate might be a better description) rather than not collecting/accumulating data. While they have data, they don’t seem to be making good use of it (so I am told).

Nearly all the discussions I have had with domain experts about the patterns found in their data have been iterative, brief email exchanges, sometimes running over many months. In this hack, everybody involved is sitting around the same table for two days, i.e., the conversation is happening in real-time and there is a cut-off time for delivery of results.

I got the impression that my fellow team-mates were new to this kind of data analysis, which is my usual experience when discussing patterns recently found in data. My standard approach is to start highlighting visual patterns present in the data (e.g., plot foo against bar), and hope that somebody says “That’s interesting” or suggests potentially more interesting items to plot.

After several dead-end iterations (i.e., plots that failed to invoke a “that’s interesting” response), drawings created per day against project duration (as a percentage of known duration) turned out to be of great interest to the domain experts.

Building construction uses a waterfall process; all the drawings (i.e., a kind of detailed requirements) are supposed to be created at the beginning of the project.

Hmm, many individual project drawing plots were showing quite a few drawings being created close to the end of the project. How could this be? It turns out that there are lots of different reasons for creating a drawing (74 reasons in the data), and that it is to be expected that some kinds of drawings are likely to be created late in the day, e.g., specific landscaping details. The 74 reasons were mapped to three drawing categories (As built, Construction, and Design Development), then project drawings were recounted and plotted in three colors (see below).

The domain experts (i.e., everybody except me) enjoyed themselves interpreting these plots. I nodded sagely, and occasionally blew my cover by asking about an acronym that everybody in the construction obviously knew.

The project meta-data includes a measure of project performance (a value between one and five, derived from profitability and other confidential values) and type of business contract (a value between one and four). The data from the 97 projects was combined by performance and contract to give 20 aggregated plots. The evolution of the number of drawings created per day might vary by contract, and the hypothesis was that projects at different performance levels would exhibit undesirable patterns in the evolution of the number of drawings created.

The plots below contain patterns in the quantity of drawings created by percentage of project completion, that are: (left) considered a good project for contract type 1 (level 5 are best performing projects), and (right) considered a bad project for contract type 1 (level 1 is the worst performing project). Contact the domain experts for details (code+data):

Number of drawings created at percentage project completion times.

The path to the above plot is a common one: discover an interesting pattern in data, notice that something does not look right, use domain knowledge to refine the data analysis (e.g., kinds of drawing or contract), rinse and repeat.

My particular interest is using data to understand software engineering processes. How do these patterns in construction drawings compare with patterns in the software project equivalents, e.g., detailed requirements?

I am not aware of any detailed public data on requirements produced using a waterfall process. So the answer is, I don’t know; but the rationales I heard for the various kinds of drawings sound as-if they would have equivalents in the software requirements world.

What about the other data provided by the challenge sponsor?

I plotted various quantities for the RFI data, but there wasn’t any “that’s interesting” response from the domain experts. Perhaps the genius behind the plot ideas will be recognized later, or perhaps one of the domain experts will suddenly realize what patterns should be present in RFI data on high performance projects (nobody is allowed to consider the possibility that the data has no practical use). It can take time for the consequences of data analysis to sink in, or for new ideas to surface, which is why I am happy for analysis conversations to stretch out over time. Our presentation deck included some RFI plots because there was RFI data in the challenge.

What is the software equivalent of construction RFIs? Perhaps issues in a tracking system, or Jira tickets? I did not think to talk more about RFIs with the domain experts.

How did team Designing-Success do?

In most hackathons, the teams that stay the course present at the end of the hack. For these ProjectHacks, submission deadline is the following day; the judging is all done later, electronically, based on the submitted slide deck and video presentation. The end of this hack was something of an anti-climax.

Did team Designing-Success discover anything of practical use?

I think that finding patterns in the drawing data converted the domain experts from a theoretical to a practical understanding that it was possible to extract interesting patterns from construction data. They each said that they planned to attend the next hack (in about four months), and I suggested that they try to bring some of their own data.

Can these drawing creation patterns be used to help monitor project performance, as it progressed? The domain experts thought so. I suspect that the users of these patterns will be those not closely associated with a project (those close to a project are usually well aware of that fact that things are not going well).