Nearest And Dearest – a.k.

a.k. from thus spake a.k.

Last time we saw how we could use the list of the nearest neighbours of a datum in a set of clustered data to calculate its strengths of association with their clusters. Specifically, we used the k nearest neighbours algorithm to define those strengths as the proportions of its k nearest neighbours that were members of each cluster or with a generalisation of it that assigned weights to the neighbours according to their positions in the list.
This time we shall take a look at a clustering algorithm that uses nearest neighbours to identify clusters, contrasting it with the k means clustering algorithm that we covered about four years ago.

Log driven development

Fran from BuontempoConsulting

Everyone knows attempting to figure out what's happening by resorting to print statements is desperation. Everyone knows you should use TDD, BDD or some xDD to write code well, don't they? I am desperate. I suggest PDD, print driven development is slow, error prone but sometimes helpful.

I recently shoe-horned a new feature into a large existing code base. It's hard to make it run a small set of work and I wanted to check a config change create my new class via the dependency injection framework. Now, I could put in a break point and wait a while for it to get hit, or not. Fortuenately, the code writes logs. By adding a log line to the constructor, I could tell much more quickly that I'd got the config correct. Write the code, leave it running, have a look later. I am tempted to name this Log Driven Development.

On one hand, adding the moral equivalents of prints is a bad thing. Teedy Deigh mused on logging in Overload 126, saying

It is generally arbitrary and unsustainable and few people are ever clear what the exact requirements are, so it spreads like a cat meme.

And yet, if I add informative logging as things happen, I can see how the whole system hangs together. Jonathan Boccara mentioned finding logs when trying to understand an unfamiliar code base, in his talk at the ACCU Conference. Existing logs can help you understand some code. Looking at this from a different direction begs the question are my logs useful? As a first step seeing a log entry when I wired in my class felt like a win. It told me what I wanted to know. I must make sure the logs I write out as my class starts doing something useful are themselves useful.

This is a step in the direction of a walking skeleton style approach - get things running end to end, outside-in, then fill in the details. I'm much more comfortable with a TDD approach, but keeping an eye on the whole system and how it hangs together is important. Building up the new feature by writing useful logs means the logs will be useful when it's released. LDD - log driven development. Why not?

Creating a self-signed certificate for Apache and connecting to it from Java

Andy Balaam from Andy Balaam's Blog

Our mission: to create a self-signed certificate for an Apache web server that allows us to connect to it over HTTPS (SSL/TLS) from a Java program.

The tricky bit for me was generating a certificate that contains Subject Alternative Names for my server, which is needed to connect to it from Java.

We will use the openssl command.

Creating a self-signed certificate for Apache HTTPD

First create a config file cert.conf:

[ req ]
distinguished_name  = subject
x509_extensions     = x509_ext
prompt = no

[ subject ]
commonName = Example Company

[ x509_ext ]
subjectAltName = @alternate_names

[ alternate_names ]
DNS.1 =

In the above, replace “” with the name you will use for the host when you connect from Java. This is important, because Java requires the name in the certificate to match the name it is using to connect to the server. If you’re connecting to it as localhost, just put “localhost”. Note: do not include “https://” or any port or path after the hostname, so “” is wrong – it should be just “”.

The alternate_names section above gives the “Subject Alternative Names” for this certificate. You can add more as “DNS.2”, “DNS.3”, etc.

Next, generate the server key and self-signed certificate:

openssl genrsa 2048 > server.key
chmod 400 server.key
openssl req -new -x509 -config cert.conf -nodes -sha256 -days 365 -key server.key -out server.crt

Now you have two new files: server.key and server.crt. These are the files that will be used by Apache HTTPD, so put them somewhere useful (e.g. inside /usr/local/apache2/conf/) and refer to them in the Apache config file using keys “SSLCertificateKeyFile” and “SSLCertificateFile” respectively. For more info see the SSL/TLS How-To.

Checking the certificate is being used

Start up your Apache and ensure you can connect to it over HTTPS using curl:

curl -v --insecure

Replace “” above with the full URL (this time, include “https://” and the port and path.

To examine the certificate that is being returned, run:

openssl s_client -showcerts -connect

Replace “” above with hostname and port (no “https:// this time!).

Connecting from Java

To be able to connect from Java, we need a Trust Store. We can create one in PKCS#12 format with:

openssl pkcs12 -export -passout pass:000000 -out trust.pkcs12 -inkey server.key -in server.crt

Note: Java 8 onwards is able to use .pkcs12 (PKCS#12) files for its trust store. The old .jks (Java Key Store) format is deprecated.

Now you have a file we can use as a trust store, follow my other article to connect from Java over HTTPS with a self-signed certificate.